WHY RICE ON KUMKUM TIKA ON OUR FOREHEAD

There are lot of beliefs attached to our Jain & Hindu traditions of performing pooja’s.
One of the traditions is to put a Kumkum Tika and rice on your forehead and then throw them behind you.
This Tika is put on your forehead between two eyebrows. !Why?
Scientifically it is said the we get a lot of peace and calmness when it put a Kumkum tika in middle of the eyebrows as there are two cells found in the brains Serotonin and Beta-endorphin. Look down and understand how it affects our system.
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals including humans. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being; it is also known to contribute to happiness.
Beta-endorphin is a potent pain suppressant
Your mind power increases and you do not feel tired and you also get relived from a lot of illnesses.
The main reason of putting rice on your head is that Rice is considered as to be one of the signs of purity, and why it is thrown behind is that as we give rice ahutis during hawans(a regious pooja) therefore it is said to be very pure. It is also said that rice grains are a sign of positive energy’s.
This is why we should put a Kumkum Tika and put rice grains and throw them behind as it would change the negative auras to positive energy’s
It gives us positive thoughts and throws the negative behind us.

श्री महाराणा प्रताप सिंह जी -Short description and stories about Shri Maharana Pratap Singh

नाम – कुँवर प्रताप जी (श्री महाराणा प्रताप सिंह जी)
जन्म – 9 मई, 1540 ई.
जन्म भूमि – कुम्भलगढ़, राजस्थान
पुण्य तिथि – 29 जनवरी, 1597 ई.
पिता – श्री महाराणा उदयसिंह जी
माता – राणी जीवत कँवर जी
राज्य – मेवाड़
शासन काल – 1568–1597ई.
शासन अवधि – 29 वर्ष
वंश – सुर्यवंश
राजवंश – सिसोदिया
राजघराना – राजपूताना
धार्मिक मान्यता – हिंदू धर्म
युद्ध – हल्दीघाटी का युद्ध
राजधानी – उदयपुर
पूर्वाधिकारी – महाराणा उदयसिंह
उत्तराधिकारी – राणा अमर सिंह

अन्य जानकारी -
महाराणा प्रताप सिंह जी के पास एक सबसे प्रिय घोड़ा था,
जिसका नाम ‘चेतक’ था।

राजपूत शिरोमणि महाराणा प्रतापसिंह उदयपुर,
मेवाड़ में सिसोदिया राजवंश के राजा थे।

वह तिथि धन्य है, जब मेवाड़ की शौर्य-भूमि पर मेवाड़-मुकुटमणि
राणा प्रताप का जन्म हुआ।

महाराणा का नाम
इतिहास में वीरता और दृढ़ प्रण के लिये अमर है।

महाराणा प्रताप की जयंती विक्रमी सम्वत् कॅलण्डर
के अनुसार प्रतिवर्ष ज्येष्ठ, शुक्ल पक्ष तृतीया को मनाई जाती
है।

महाराणा प्रताप के बारे में कुछ रोचक जानकारी:-

1… महाराणा प्रताप एक ही झटके में घोड़े समेत दुश्मन सैनिक को काट डालते थे।

2…. जब इब्राहिम लिंकन भारत दौरे पर आ रहे थे तब उन्होने
अपनी माँ से पूछा कि हिंदुस्तान से आपके लिए क्या लेकर
आए| तब माँ का जवाब मिला- ”उस महान देश की वीर भूमि
हल्दी घाटी से एक मुट्ठी धूल लेकर आना जहाँ का राजा अपनी प्रजा के प्रति इतना वफ़ादार था कि उसने आधे हिंदुस्तान के बदले अपनी मातृभूमि को चुना ” लेकिन बदकिस्मती से उनका वो दौरा रद्द हो गया था | “बुक ऑफ़
प्रेसिडेंट यु एस ए ‘किताब में आप यह बात पढ़ सकते हैं |

3…. महाराणा प्रताप के भाले का वजन 80 किलोग्राम था और कवच का वजन भी 80 किलोग्राम ही था|

कवच, भाला, ढाल, और हाथ में तलवार का वजन मिलाएं तो कुल वजन 207 किलो था।

4…. आज भी महाराणा प्रताप की तलवार कवच आदि सामान
उदयपुर राज घराने के संग्रहालय में सुरक्षित हैं |

5…. अकबर ने कहा था कि अगर राणा प्रताप मेरे सामने झुकते है तो आधा हिंदुस्तान के वारिस वो होंगे पर बादशाहत अकबर की ही रहेगी|
लेकिन महाराणा प्रताप ने किसी की भी अधीनता स्वीकार करने से मना कर दिया |

6…. हल्दी घाटी की लड़ाई में मेवाड़ से 20000 सैनिक थे और
अकबर की ओर से 85000 सैनिक युद्ध में सम्मिलित हुए |

7…. महाराणा प्रताप के घोड़े चेतक का मंदिर भी बना हुआ है जो आज भी हल्दी घाटी में सुरक्षित है |

8…. महाराणा प्रताप ने जब महलों का त्याग किया तब उनके साथ लुहार जाति के हजारो लोगों ने भी घर छोड़ा और दिन रात राणा कि फौज के लिए तलवारें बनाईं| इसी
समाज को आज गुजरात मध्यप्रदेश और राजस्थान में गाढ़िया लोहार कहा जाता है|
मैं नमन करता हूँ ऐसे लोगो को |

9…. हल्दी घाटी के युद्ध के 300 साल बाद भी वहाँ जमीनों में तलवारें पाई गई।
आखिरी बार तलवारों का जखीरा 1985 में हल्दी घाटी में मिला था |

10….. महाराणा प्रताप को शस्त्रास्त्र की शिक्षा “श्री जैमल मेड़तिया जी” ने दी थी जो 8000 राजपूत वीरों को लेकर 60000 मुसलमानों से लड़े थे। उस युद्ध में 48000 मारे गए थे
जिनमे 8000 राजपूत और 40000 मुग़ल थे |

11…. महाराणा के देहांत पर अकबर भी रो पड़ा था |

12…. मेवाड़ के आदिवासी भील समाज ने हल्दी घाटी में
अकबर की फौज को अपने तीरो से रौंद डाला था वो महाराणा प्रताप को अपना बेटा मानते थे और राणा बिना भेदभाव के उन के साथ रहते थे|
आज भी मेवाड़ के राजचिन्ह पर एक तरफ राजपूत हैं तो दूसरी तरफ भील |

13….. महाराणा प्रताप का घोड़ा चेतक महाराणा को 26 फीट का दरिया पार करने के बाद वीर गति को प्राप्त हुआ | उसकी एक टांग टूटने के बाद भी वह दरिया पार कर गया। जहाँ वो घायल हुआ वहां आज खोड़ी इमली नाम का पेड़ है जहाँ पर चेतक की मृत्यु हुई वहाँ चेतक मंदिर है |

14….. राणा का घोड़ा चेतक भी बहुत ताकतवर था उसके
मुँह के आगे दुश्मन के हाथियों को भ्रमित करने के लिए हाथी
की सूंड लगाई जाती थी । यह हेतक और चेतक नाम के दो घोड़े थे|

15….. मरने से पहले महाराणा प्रताप ने अपना खोया
हुआ 85 % मेवाड फिर से जीत लिया था । सोने चांदी और
महलो को छोड़कर वो 20 साल मेवाड़ के जंगलो में घूमे |

16…. महाराणा प्रताप का वजन 110 किलो और लम्बाई 7’5” थी, दो म्यान वाली तलवार और 80 किलो का भाला रखते थे हाथ में।

महाराणा प्रताप के हाथी
की कहानी:

मित्रो आप सब ने महाराणा
प्रताप के घोड़े चेतक के बारे
में तो सुना ही होगा,
लेकिन उनका एक हाथी
भी था। जिसका नाम था रामप्रसाद। उसके बारे में आपको कुछ बाते बताता हुँ।

रामप्रसाद हाथी का उल्लेख
अल- बदायुनी, जो मुगलों
की ओर से हल्दीघाटी के
युद्ध में लड़ा था ने अपने एक ग्रन्थ में किया है।

वो लिखता है की जब महाराणा
प्रताप पर अकबर ने चढाई की
थी तब उसने दो चीजो को
ही बंदी बनाने की मांग की
थी एक तो खुद महाराणा
और दूसरा उनका हाथी
रामप्रसाद।

आगे अल बदायुनी लिखता है
की वो हाथी इतना समझदार
व ताकतवर था की उसने
हल्दीघाटी के युद्ध में अकेले ही
अकबर के 13 हाथियों को मार
गिराया था

वो आगे लिखता है कि
उस हाथी को पकड़ने के लिए
हमने 7 बड़े हाथियों का एक
चक्रव्यूह बनाया और उन पर
14 महावतो को बिठाया तब
कहीं जाकर उसे बंदी बना पाये।

अब सुनिए एक भारतीय
जानवर की स्वामी भक्ति।

उस हाथी को अकबर के समक्ष
पेश किया गया जहा अकबर ने
उसका नाम पीरप्रसाद रखा।
रामप्रसाद को मुगलों ने गन्ने
और पानी दिया।
पर उस स्वामिभक्त हाथी ने
18 दिन तक मुगलों का न
तो दाना खाया और न ही
पानी पिया और वो शहीद
हो गया।

तब अकबर ने कहा था कि
जिसके हाथी को मैं अपने सामने
नहीं झुका पाया उस महाराणा
प्रताप को क्या झुका पाउँगा।
ऐसे ऐसे देशभक्त चेतक व रामप्रसाद जैसे तो यहाँ
जानवर थे।

इसलिए मित्रो हमेशा अपने
भारतीय होने पे गर्व करो।
जय हिन्द।। भारत माँ के वीर सपूत जिन्होंने अपनी मातृभूमि के स्वाभिमान के लिए अपना सर्वस्व बलिदान कर दिया ऐसे वीर शिरोमणि महाराणा प्रताप के जन्मदिवस पर उनको शत शत नमन। भारत के इतिहास में ऐसी असंख्य वीर -वीरांगनायों के नाम अंकित हैं जिन्होंने अपनी मातृभूमि और धर्म की रक्षा के लिए अपना जीवन बलिदान कर दिया। इन महान बलिदानियों में महाराणा प्रताप का नाम सबसे महतवपूर्ण है जिन्होंने अपनी मातृभूमि और धर्म की रक्षा के लिए राजसी ठाठ -बाट त्यागकर जंगलों की खाक छानकर भी हार नहीं मानी और अपनी पूरी ताकत विदेशी मुगलों की सत्ता को उखाड़ने में लगा दी। प्रताप ने मुग़ल बादशाह अकबर की अधीनता स्वीकार करने की बजाय रणभूमि में लड़ने का रास्ता स्वीकार किया। धन्य है ऐसी वीरांगना जिसने ऐसे वीर पुत्र को जना। आज देश में ऐसे लोगों और नेतायों की कमी नहीं है जो सत्ता के लिए देश -धर्म के विरुद्ध जाकर भी अपने स्वाभिमान और अस्तित्व का सौदा करने से भी बाज नहीं आ रहे ,लानत है ऐसे लोगों पर। आज फिर ऐसा वातावरण बनता जा रहा है जिसमे भारत के स्वाभिमान को देश के अंदर और बाहर से गम्भीर चुनौती दी जा रही है और शासक वर्ग ऐसी ताकतों से निपटने की बजाय उनके आगे पुरे राष्ट्र के गौरव को धूमिल करने में तनिक भी शर्म महसूस नहीं कर रहा। अब फिर वो समय आ गया है जिसमें हमारी मातृभूमि अपने सम्मान और स्वाभिमान की रक्षा के लिए अपनी संतान को पुकार रही है। आओ आज हम महाराणा प्रताप जैसे वीर बलिदानी की जन्मदिवस पर शपथ लें कि हम भारत माँ की पुकार को अनसुना नहीं करेंगे और उसके स्वाभिमान को रौंदने वाली राष्ट्र और धर्म विरोधी शक्तियों को समूल उखाड़ कर दम लेंगे।

Toliyasar Bhairu Ji

Temple Profile: Mandir Shri Bhairu Ji Location:ToliyasarGod Worshipped:Shri BhairujiDistrict:BikanerRoad Distance from Jaipur:250 kmsBuilt in the year:1933Nearest Airport:-80 K.M.ByShri Brijraji.Nearest Rly. Station:shri Doongargarh (15 K.M.)

Cause of Establishment:It has been built in the year 1933. The Founder was Shri Brijraji. In the whole of Rajasthan Bherunji or Bhairon is a deity worshiped by all. His Temple is often found in the devi temples. In Toliasar, the temple of Bhairuji is very very old and it command great respect from the people around. The people believe that Bhairji gave orders to his pujari (priest) in dream to construct a temple for him. This Pujari was Shri Brijraj who in Samvat 1933 started construction of this temple.Gradually the villagers and other devotes also extend their help in the construction of this present huge and imposing temple of Bhairoji at Toliasar is there.

Brief of the Diety:

In this temple the principal deity is bhairon ji. The idol of Bhairoji is 2 feet. High. It’s made of black stone. Here Bhairoji seated on a dog. There is an old statue also. This Statue in the rock is 2 feet 3 inches high.

Religious sect to which the temple belongs:

Shakta Sect.

Architecture of the Temple: Important Architectural Characteristics:

The Temple has round Shikhar like a tomb. Other features of the temple are the same as those of other Hindu deities. There is a Garbha Griha, a parikrama and a Sabha Mandap. In the Parikrama (Circumambulatory paths) and Sabha Mandap, prayer hall, beautiful pictures are drawn on the walls. The high gate of temple stands on the main road.

Material of Construction:

Bricks, Lime Stone, Cement.

Total Construction Time: 9 Years Religious aspects of temple:

Bheruji is worshiped by all Hindus and others also. This deity is said to be extending instant tenuous years help, he averts all his misfortune, difficulties and accidents. In the month of Vaishakha, Jyestha and Magha, Hindus bring their newly born infants for their mundan (ceremonial shearing of hair); newly married couples also visit the temple.

Unique features of the temple:

Festivals & Fairs in Temple (Main Events):In the month of Margshisha and Magh, big fairs are arranged and thousands of Visitors take part in that.

Timings: Morning Time: from 5.00 am

Evening Time:

till 10.00 pm Custom & Traditions of Temple: Details of Temple: Sanctrum: One Sanctorum: OneVerandah: One Garbh Grah: One Rasoi: One Vandana (If any particular) in text: Songs written in the prays of Bhairuji are sung here.

Issues requiring global attention for conservation, protection and improvement of the temple:The temple can be a tourist attraction centre if efforts are made by the Deptt. of Tourism . The cult of Tantra requires preservation. Temples such as this one can be of great help .

Rani Durgavati Museum, Jabalpur M.P

These carvings are displayed at the Rani Durgavati Museum, Jabalpur M.P.
Most carvings are from the 10& l1th century,during the reign of the kalachuri dynasty.The Kalachuri kings were called the Kalachuris of Chedi or Chedis. They established their kingdom in Madhya Pradesh with their capital at Tripuri near Jablapur. Kokalla I was the founder of the dynasty. The Chedis had to face the rulers of Kannauj and Malwa, the Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas. They also had to defend their territory against the Palas and rulers of Kalinga. One of the most important rulers of Kalachuri dynasty was Gangeyadeva. He tried to make the Chedis the paramount power of Northern India. He was succeeded by his son Karandeva. The Kalachuris dynasty declined by 1181 AD.

Chaturmukha Basadi

 

Chaturmukha Basadi was built in 1432 during the reign of Jain king, Vir Pandyadeva. The Basadi was named as Chaturmukha Basadi because of four identical doorways which points four directions and all doorways lead to the Garbhagriha.

The Chaturmukha Basadi has 108 pillars with pillars on four sides of the entrance. The Basadi is constructed in the form of four faced hall, the roof of the basadi is flat with very big granite slabs. The Garbhagriha houses the idols of the Yakshi Padmavati and 24th Thirthankara, in addition to the standing idols of Malli, Suryata and Ara.

This Basadi is one of the most popular and attractive Basadis of Karkala. Nice place to offer prayer and to perform peaceful meditation. This monument is protected by Archaeological Survey of India.
Basadi= Temple

A short story

दोपहर का समय !
अभी-अभी वर्षा थमी थी |
बादल बरस के खाली हो गए थे |
तारकोल की लंबी-लंबी सडकें धुलकर साफ़ हो गई |
गड्ढों में पानी इकट्ठा हो गया |
कभी-कभार हवा का झोंका आ रहा था |
पर वातावरण में उमस थी |
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इस प्राकृतिक ऊमस से भी मन की ऊमस ज्यादा खतरनाक होती है |
एक साधक मन की ऊमस से घबरा कर साधना मार्ग से वापिस मुड़ने की सोच रहा था |
कुछ भौतिक प्रलोभनों से वह विक्षिप्त-सा बन गया था |
साधना उसे नीरस लगने लगी थी |
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
मुनि सोचने लगा –
” सांसारिक सुखों का अनुभव किये बिना ही मैंने साधना का यह कंटकाकीर्ण पथ चुन लिया है |
कौन जानता है इसका परिणाम क्या आएगा ?
इतने बड़े-बड़े साधक मेरे सामने हैं |
इन्होने साधना से अपने शरीर को खपा दिया है |
फिर भी इन्हें क्या मिला ?
यह साधना-पथ मुझे भी धोखा न् दे दे |
इसी उधेड़-बुन में उसे नींद आ गयी |
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आचार्य ने साधक की मन:स्थिति का अध्ययन करके निर्देश की भाषा में कहा –
” जब तुम साधना-पथ में उठ ही गए हो,
तो फिर प्रमाद क्यों ?
जाग जाने के बाद प्रमाद करना दोहरी भूल है |
तुम आत्म-बोध के लक्ष्य को छोड़कर बाहय जगत की चकाचौंध में मत उलझो |
अपने विवेक को जागृत करने के लिये –
जागृत और सुप्त व्यक्ति की गति का अध्ययन करो |
जागृति ही जीवन है,
इस तथ्य को विस्मृत मत करो |”
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गुरु के इस निर्देश से शिष्य को समाधि मिल गयी
और
उस साधक के भौतिक आकर्षण टूट गए |
ओम अर्हम…
~ संघमहानिदेशिका महाश्रमणी साध्वी प्रमुखा श्री कनकप्रमुखा जी की पुस्तक ” सत्य का पंछी : विचारों का पिंजरा पृष्ठ संख्या २०५ ” से

MAHAVIR AND THE COW HERDER

One day as Lord Mahavir was going from one place to another, he stopped near a big tree, outside the village, to meditate. While he was meditating, a cow herder came there with his cows. He needed someone to look after the cows, so he could run some errands. He asked Mahavirswami if he would look after the cows for a few hours. Lord Mahavir was in deep meditation, and did not hear the cow herder. However, the cow herder went away thinking that Lord Mahavir had heard him and will look after the cows.
In the meantime, the cows started wandering away, looking for and grazing grass. A few hours later, the cow herder returned and found all his cows missing. He asked Mahavirswami, “Where are my cows? What did you do with them?” Lord Mahavir was still in meditation and did not reply. The cow herder started wondering. “Where could they be?” Since Lord Mahavir did not reply, the cow herder searched
for them everywhere in the valley, but could not find them. While he was looking for the cows, they returned to the place where Mahavirswami was meditating. When the cow herder came back, to his amazement, all his cows were standing near Lord Mahavir. Mahavirswami was still meditating. The cow herder became very angry at Lord Mahavir, because he thought that Lord Mahavir was hiding his cows.
So, he took out his rope and was about to whip Mahavirswami with it. Just then, an angel from heaven came down and held the rope.
“Can’t you see that Lord Mahavir is in deep meditation?” asked the angel.”But he tricked me!” said the cow herder. The angel replied, “He is a Muni/Saint. He does not care for your cows or anything else in this world. He was in meditation and did not hear you. He did not do anything to your cows. You would have gotten bad karmas for hurting him.” The cow herder realized that he had made a mistake. He apologized to Lord Mahavir and went away silently. The angel went back to heaven feeling happy that he could stop Lord Mahavir’s suffering. Mahavir didn’t have any bad feelings towards the cow herder, because he held no anger towards anyone.
We should not make hasty decisions, because we can be wrong. We should also not hurt anyone, and should observe forgiveness instead of anger. This way we can stop new karmas from coming to our soul.

A Story of Jambu Swami

In Rajgruhi there was a wealthy merchant named Rushabhadatt who was also known as Arhadas. His wife Dharini ( also named Jinmati) gave birth to a very handsome son in the yaer 542 BCE. The boy was named Jambu. He turned out to be very bright and intelligent and everyone liked him.

As he grew up, many families were eager to get him married to their daughters. Since it was the time of polygamy, his parents selected eight girls of reputed families and Jambu was duly engaged with them.

Prior to the marriage Jambu once went to the assembly of Sudharmaswami and was very much impressed by the sermon. He developed a very high sense of detachment and decided to renounce. His parents were of course not willing to let him renounce at that young age and the parents of the girls engaged to him were also much perturbed. They were worried about their daughters, since no one else would accept them on account of their being already engaged to him.

All of them pressed Jambu to give up his intention. They pointed out the rigors of ascetic life that he would not be able to face. They also told him that it is very hard to lead the life of a Muni and advised him to go in for the comfortable family life. He however remained firm.

The parents thought that he would change his mind, if he gets married. They therefore insisted upon his getting married before renouncing. Jambu agreed on condition that he should be allowed to renounce the day after his marriage. Since the girls to whom he was engaged were very beautiful and attractive, everyone thought that he would surely gain attachment for them, once he is married. The elders therefore accepted that condition.

The wedding took place on a grand scale. Jambu’s parents and those of the girls vied with one another in show of their prosperity. No effort was left out to make the wedding a memorable ceremony. Highly distinguished guests graced the occasion. Jewelry and other precious gifts that were heaped on the newly-weds, were the envy for the whole city. Rajgruhi had rarely witnessed such pomp and splendor. Every one congratulated Jambu for getting such beautiful and glamorous wives and wished him perfect happiness. At night Jambu was closeted in elegantly decorated bedroom along with his wives and the elders heaved a sigh of relief.

Jambu was however not at all affected by the glamour nor was he overcome by the beauty of those lovely girls. He had made up his mind to renounce the next day and wanted to make use of the night for orienting those girls for the purpose. He sat in front of them and started explaining the purely temporary and transitory character of life and everything pertaining to that.

At that time in the vicinity of Rajgruhi, there was a burglar named Prabhav. He had been a prince of Vindhya but had fallen out with his parents on the issue of some property. He therefore left the place and had embarked upon burglary. He had gathered with him 500 companions who were willing to undertake any sort of adventure at his command. He had acquired the art whereby he could put any one to sleep and he could break any type of lock. He came to know of the fabulous treasure accumulated on the occasion of Jambu’s wedding and had decided to grab it.

At dead of the night he came to the place along with his followers and saw that everyone had gone to sleep on account of the exhaustion of the ceremony. He asked his companions to pick up the valuables and himself proceeded towards Jambu’s bedroom for the jewelry on the bodies of newly-weds.

From a little distance he heard Jambu talking to his wives. He could not believe that the newly-weds were still awake so he came close to the door and tried to listen to their presumed amorous gossip, but to his utter astonishment Jambu was talking about the true nature of life. His words were so persuasive that Prabhav could not stop listening.

Jambu words appealed not only to his wives but also to Prabhav, and so the culprit started thinking that he had fallen out with his parents and others for the sake of some possessions and was leading the nasty life of a burglar, while here was a young boy planning to give up everything that he had effortlessly gained.

Jambu’s speech was still going on. The more Prabhav listened, the more he hated himself. His companions came to him with bundles of valuables, pointing out that it was getting dawn and they should leave, but Prabhav was not listening to them. He had developed disdain for his current life and was keen to change it. Ultimately he told his followers to leave him alone, because he had decided to give up burglary. They could therefore go on their own. All of them were exasperated at that. They said that they were not to go anywhere without him. If he was giving up the occupation, they were also willing to give it up.

By that time Jambu had finished. His wives were convinced of the futility of the worldly life and had decided to renounce with him. Then Prabhav came inside and said that he had come up for the burglary but had decided to renounce after listening his talk to his wives. He and his 500 followers made up their mind to be Jambu’s pupils.

In the morning, news spread everywhere that Jambu was going to renounce that day along with his wives. His parents were disappointed that their intention did not materialize but they did not have any incentive to continue the household life and decided to renounce too. And so was the decision of the girls’ parents. A spectacular procession was organized leading all those people to the assembly of Sudharmaswami. Jambu became his pupil and Prabhav together with his colleagues became Jambu’s pupil.

Thenceforth, Jambu Swami studied the entire teaching of Lord Mahavir and he became the head of the order after Sudharmaswami. Many Jain scriptures are composed in the form of a dialogue between Sudharmaswami and Jambu Swami.

Jambu Swami himself attained Kevalgnan in the year 514 BCE, i.e. eight years after Sudharmaswami attained it. He was the last Kevalgnani of the current time cycle and attained Nirvana at the age of 80